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Joseph Edwards

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May 24, 2019


We at Heartland Hemp Inc. want to spread the science behind the CBD explosion, and the importance of the Endocannabinoid System (ECS).  So here are a few selections regarding the ECS from www.verywellhealth.com and What Is the Endocannabinoid System? by Adrienne Dellwo published and medically reviewed in April 2019.

“To understand the ECS, it first helps to understand what homeostasis is.

Basically, homeostasis is your body’s efforts to keep everything in the right zone.  It tries to keep your internal environment stable and optimal no matter what’s going on in the environment around you.  Think of all the gauges in the dashboard of a car or airplane.  Those all tell the operator whether things are—or aren’t—operating in the proper zone.

Just like the electronics in a car or plane, your body works continuously to monitor important levels and functions in your body.  Is your temperature too high, too low, or just right?  Are your hormone levels what they should be?  Is your heart beating too fast?  Do you need fuel or rest?  Is too much of something building up in your bloodstream or inside of your cells?

When something is operating outside of the right range, your body activates the ECS to help correct it.  So when you’re really hot and begin to sweat, thank your ECS for working to cool you down.  Stomach growling?  That’s your ECS helping remind you to eat because you need fuel.

The ECS does this via cannabinoid receptors found in select tissues. We have (at least) two types of cannabinoid receptors:

·         CB1 which is in the central nervous system (brain and nerves of the spinal cord)

·         CB2 which is in the peripheral nervous system (nerves in your extremities), the digestive system, and specialized cells in the immune system

Cannabinoid receptors are believed to be among the most plentiful in our central nervous system, and some researchers hypothesize that we could have a third, undiscovered one, as well.

Through those receptors, the ECS helps regulate a lot of important functions, such as:

·   Appetite

·   Mood

·   Memory

·   Digestion

·   Sleep

·   Motor control

·   Immune function

·   Pain

·   Reproduction/fertility

·   Inflammation, including neuroinflammation

·   Pleasure/reward

·   Temperature regulation


Your body activates the ECS with precision so that it impacts only what it needs to.  For example, if your reproductive hormones are out of whack, it will work to regulate them without altering your digestion or immune system.

Then, once the endocannabinoids have done their job and brought things into balance, certain enzymes come along to break them down and prevent them from going too far and upsetting the balance in the opposite direction.  It’s a precise response.

That’s different from what happens if someone smokes marijuana and floods their system with cannabinoids. Then the drug has wide-ranging impacts on physiology, some of which may be beneficial while others may be harmful.

Homeostasis is essential to our health and survival, so when the ECS isn’t working properly, it can cause a lot of problems for you.”

“As medical science has learned more about the ECS, it’s also discovered several conditions that appear to be related to dysregulation of the system, which is called clinical endocannabinoid deficiency (CECD).  CECD isn’t a disease itself but is an umbrella term encompassing conditions with this common feature.

The CECD conditions include: Fibromyalgia, Migraine, Irritable bowel syndrome

These conditions are sometimes called “functional conditions” or “central sensitivity syndromes.”  They tend to be resistant to most treatments, so researchers are looking into cannabis-based treatments.

These conditions also generally involve more than one system—which makes sense when you look at the areas influenced by the ECS.

For example, fibromyalgia involves the central and peripheral nervous systems, the immune system, the endocrine (hormonal) system, and even the digestive system.  It’s also been linked to premature perimenopause, problems with conception, and early hysterectomy. Temperature sensitivity and poor memory are common symptoms.

That seems like a grab-bag of unrelated problems until you think about homeostasis and the ECS.

We’re still early in the process of figuring out how to correct endocannabinoid deficiency, but the increasing availability of medical marijuana and CBD products has been largely embraced by the patient community and we’re likely to see a lot more research in that area.” (https://www.verywellhealth.com/what-is-the-endocannabinoid-system-4171855 )

By now, most people have heard about cannabinoids such as Delta-9 THC and CBD. While these compounds have a range of medical benefits, they are only part of what makes cannabis therapy so effective; and have proven to be less effective on their own than when combined with other phytochemicals like terpenes.  Both cannabinoids and terpenes affect receptors in the endocannabinoid system which is what allows cannabis to act therapeutically in the human body.

 The endocannabinoid system is involved in a host of homeostatic and physiologic functions, including modulation of pain and inflammation. The specific roles of currently identified endocannabinoids that act as ligands at endogenous cannabinoid receptors within the central nervous system (primarily but not exclusively CB1 receptors) and in the periphery (primarily but not exclusively CB2 receptors) are only partially elucidated, but they do exert an influence on nociception. Exogenous plant-based cannabinoids (phytocannabinoids) and chemically related compounds, like the terpenes, commonly found in many foods, have been found to exert significant analgesic effects in various chronic pain conditions. Currently, the use of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol is limited by its psychoactive effects and predominant delivery route (smoking), as well as regulatory or legal constraints. However, other phytocannabinoids in combination, especially cannabidiol and β-caryophyllene, delivered by the oral route appear to be promising candidates for the treatment of chronic pain due to their high safety and low adverse effects profiles. This review will provide the reader with the foundational basic and clinical science linking the endocannabinoid system and the phytocannabinoids with their potentially therapeutic role in the management of chronic pain.”(The Endocannabinoid System, Cannabinoids, and Pain,  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3820295/)

It is the terpenes in cannabis which modulate (modify or control) the effect that the cannabinoids within each sample will have on the user. This is why different strains of cannabis effect each user uniquely. For example, if you have 2 different types of cannabis and both have equal amounts of cannabinoids, but one gives you energetic effects and one gives you sedative effects, this is largely due to the different terpene profiles of the strains.

Cannabinoids and terpenes have their own independent effects, but in combination they have been known to be vastly more effective than in isolation.  The term “entourage effect” has become an easily identified piece of vocabulary in the cannabis community to describe the basic relationship between terpenes, cannabinoids, and other phytochemicals (chemicals made by plants) which are responsible for the vast therapeutic potential of cannabis.

We at Heartland feel that the term “ensemble effect” better describes the individual importance that each cannabidiol and terpene brings to the effect.  Instead of CBD acting as the most important single entity with everything else hanging on the edges, we see it as a conductor of the orchestra.  Without CBD, each instrument (terpene) is trying to work on its own, but with CBD the sound changes from chaos to a beautiful piece of music.

To explore that concept we will spotlight a terpene within each newsletter, including quotes of testing information from medical studies.  We will also include the terpene profile of essential oils that have the particular terpene in them.






Spotlight Terpene: Beta-Caryophyllene

Sources: Black Pepper, Copaiba Resin, Cloves, Hops, Oregano, Lavender, Rosemary

Why this Terpene:

Beta-Caryophyllene is important for several reasons but the primary reason is because of its size and molecular structure it has also been identified as a dietary cannabinoid.  “Due to these properties, Beta-Caryophyllene is able to activate several receptors in the body, including CB2, which is usually activated most by CBD” (True Terpenes, 2019)  Being able to activate the CB2 receptors within the endocannabinoid system similar to CBD lets this terpene enhance the benefits of CBD within the Gastrointestinal system, the Immune system and the Peripheral nervous system.

“Although the CB(1) receptor is responsible for the psychomodulatory effects, activation of the CB(2) receptor is a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of inflammation, pain, atherosclerosis, and osteoporosis.  Here, we report that the widespread plant volatile (E)-beta-caryophyllene [(E)-BCP] selectively binds to the CB(2) receptor (K(i) = 155 +/- 4 nM) and that it is a functional CB(2) agonist.  Intriguingly, (E)-BCP is a common constituent of the essential oils of numerous spice and food plants and a major component in Cannabis.” (Gertsch et al., Beta-caryophyllene is a dietary cannabinoid, 2008 Jun 23, Epub) www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18574142


The terpenoid beta-caryophyllene has also been shown to inhibit the development of gastric lesions evoked in rats.  As a possible protective agent within the gastric system many are using copaiba oil as an herbal remedy for stomach issues.  However, like the majority of terpenes beta-caryophyllene has also proven to be a potent anti-inflammatory which is a primary source of chronic pain. This combination of natural benefits is slowly gaining ground as a homeopathic remedy for a multitude of issues.

doTERRA a leader within the essential oil industry has this to say about this particular terpene:

“Beta-caryophyllene is primarily known for its presence in the essential oils extracted from black pepper, clove, melissa, and rosemary, but the best source is the lesser-known oil copaiba.  GC-MS assessments have shown that many sources of copaiba essential oil are composed of more than 50% beta-caryophyllene, and not surprisingly, the properties of this oil extracted from the oleoresin of Copaifera species trees is becoming a popular topic of research.  There have been over 70 peer-reviewed studies published in scientific journals in the last handful of years evaluating the benefits of copaiba, several of which focus on its CB2-binding properties and the associated health benefits.” (Rodriguez D., Beta-Caryophyllene: Squashing the Essential Oil Debate with Science, harcourthealth.com)

In conclusion our high levels of this particular terpene could be a contributing factor regarding our particular blends of CBD Hemp oil within our tinctures and topical products.

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